An organosulfur compound isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract,
and its antimicrobial
Yoshida H; Katsuzaki H; Ohta R; Ishikawa K; Fukuda H; Fujino
T; Suzuki A
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1999 Mar, 63:3, 588-90
An organosulfur compound was isolated from oil-macerated garlic
extract by silica gel
column chromatography and preparative TLC. From the results of
NMR, IR, and MS
analyses, its structure was determined as E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,7-diene-9-oxide
(iso-E-10-devinylajoene, iso-E-10-DA). This compound was different
E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide (E-10-devinylajoene, E-10-DA)
only in the position
of a double bond. Iso-E-10-DA had antimicrobial activity against
such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus,
and yeasts at the
concentration lower than 100 micrograms/ml, but Gram-negative
bacteria were not inhibited
at the same concentration. The antimicrobial activity of iso-E-10-DA
was inferior to those
of similar oil-macerated garlic extract compounds such as E-ajoene,
Z-10-DA. From these results, it was suggested that trans structure
and/or the position of
double bond of iso-E-10-DA reduce the antimicrobial activity.
Antimicrobial activity of spices.
Arora DS; Kaur J
Int J Antimicrob Agents, 1999 Aug, 12:3, 257-62
Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular,
This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic
bacteria and yeasts to
various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic
substances. Of the
different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess
The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within
1 h of incubation and 93%
killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was
achieved within 3 h. Yeasts
were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with
clove. Some bacteria showing
resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts
of both garlic and clove. Greater
anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin.
Spices might have a great
potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.
Antibacterial, antidermatophytic and antitoxigenic activities
of onion (Allium cepa L.) oil.
Zohri AN; Abdel Gawad K; Saber S
Microbiol Res, 1995 May, 150:2, 167-72
The inhibitory effect of onion oil against the growth of various
isolates of bacteria
representing Gram-positive (4 isolates) and Gram-negative (4
isolates) species were studied.
Results show that onion oil was highly active against all Gram-positive
bacteria tested and
only one isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae) of Gram-negative bacteria.
The inhibitory effect of
onion oil against nine different species of dermatophytic fungi
were also studied. Onion oil
(200 ppm) completely inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis,
M. gypseum and
Trichophyton simii while the growth of both, Chrysosporium queenslandicum
Trichophyton mentagrophytes was completely inhibited by 500 ppm
of onion oil. The
growth of four other species of dermatophytic fungi was gradually
reduced by increasing
the concentrations of onion oil. The inhibitory effect of onion
oil was also tested against four
toxigenic isolates of fungi. Onion oil at different concentrations
(100, 200 and 500 ppm)
tested gradually reduced fungal growth and aflatoxin production
by Aspergillus flavus IMI
89,717 and A. parasiticus var. globosus IMI 120,920. Fungal growth
and production of
sterigmatocystin and rubratoxin A by A. versicolor IMI 16,139
and Penicillium rubrum
IMI 136,127 were completely inhibited by the addition of 200
ppm onion oil.
Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic & allicin in experimental
shigellosis in rabbits.
Chowdhury AK; Ahsan M; Islam SN; Ahmed ZU
Indian J Med Res, 1991 Jan, 93:, 33-6
The aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) and allicin both
showed significant in vitro
antibacterial activity against isolates of multiple drug-resistant
Shigella dysenteriae 1, Sh.
flexneri Y, Sh. sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
The minimum inhibitory
concentrations of the aqueous extract and allicin against Sh.
flexneri Y were 5 and 0.4
microliters/ml, respectively. The two agents also showed promising
in vivo antibacterial
activity against Sh. flexneri Y when tested in the rabbit model
of experimental shigellosis,
fully curing the infected rabbits within 3 days. On the contrary,
4 of the 5 rabbits in the
control group died within 48 h. The rectal swab of rabbits of
the experimental groups
became free of the challenge bacteria on the second day of treatment.
activity against the challenge strain was observed in the sera
of the treated rabbits with 30-60
min of administration of the agents. The LD50 values of the aqueous
extract and allicin in
mice were 173.78 ml/kg and 204.17 microliters/kg of body weight,
respectively. At the
therapeutic dose, the two agents did not show any adverse effects
on the standard
biochemical profile of blood.
Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai
low-salt fermented fish product
and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.
Paludan Müller C; Huss HH; Gram L
Int J Food Microbiol, 1999 Feb, 46:3, 219-29
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish,
rice, garlic and banana leaves)
and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product)
were characterized by API
50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp.
lactis and Leuconostoc
citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced
fish, Lactobacillus paracasei
subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic
mix and banana leaves. In
addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and
were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative
species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during
fermentation. In total, 9%
of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the
two main carbohydrate
components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled
by a capacity to ferment
inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains
was found during fermentation
of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting
strains were isolated
during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either
starch fermenting Lc.
lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic
fermenting Lb. plantarum
and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated
prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic,
pH was above 4.8 after
three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The
starch fermenting LAB
were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred
after three days.
Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting
strains led to
production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days.
The fermentation was
slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This
is the first report describing the
role of garlic as carbohydrate Source for LAB in fermented
Effects of the garlic compounds diallyl sulphide and diallyl
disulphide on arylamine
N-acetyltransferase activity in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Chen GW; Chung JG; Ho HC; Lin JG
J Appl Toxicol, 1999 Mar, 19:2, 75-81
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activities with 2-aminofluorene
determined in the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cytosols or
suspensions of K.
pneumoniae with or without specific concentrations of diallyl
sulphide (DAS) or diallyl
disulphide (DADS) as co-treatment showed different percentages
of 2-AF acetylation. The
data indicated that there was decreased NAT activity associated
with increased levels of
DAS or DADS in K. pneumoniae. In growth studies on K. pneumoniae
demonstrated that DAS or DADS elicited a dose-dependent bacteriocide
effect on K.
pneumoniae. For the cytosol examinations, the apparent values
of Km and Vmax were
0.96+/-0.09 mM and 7.87+/-0.79 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively,
However, when DAS or DADS was added to the reaction mixtures,
the apparent values of
Km and Vmax were 0.16+/-0.04 mM and 0.99+/-0.16 nmol min(-1)
mg(-1) protein with
DAS, respectively, and 0.14+/-0.18 mM and 0.85+/-0.10 nmol min(-1)
mg(-1) protein with
DADS, respectively, for 2-AF. For the intact bacteria examination,
the apparent values of
Km and Vmax were 0.57+/-0.06 mM and 2.00+/-0.14 nmol min(-1)
per 10x10(10) CFU,
respectively, for 2-AF. However, when DAS or DADS was added to
the reaction mixtures,
the apparent of values of Km and Vmax were 0.41+/-0.04 mM and
min(-1) per 10x10(10) CFU with DAS, respectively, and 0.34+/-0.04
mM and 1.08+/-0.08
nmol min(-1) per 10x10(10) CFU with DADS, respectively, for 2-AF.
This report is the
first demonstration to show that the garlic components DAS and
DADS would affect K.
pneumoniae growth and NAT activity.
Recombinant expression of alliin lyase from garlic (Allium sativum)
in bacteria and yeasts
Weik R; Francky A; Striedner G; Raspor P; Bayer K; Mattanovich
Planta Med, 1998 May, 64:4, 387-8
Recombinant garlic alliin lyase was produced in Escherichia coli,
and Pichia pastoris. A cDNA clone was obtained from garlic bulbs
by PCR and introduced
into suitable bacterial and yeast expression vectors. The recombinant
alliin lyase forms
inclusion bodies in all three host organisms, which are deposited
in the cytoplasm. After cell
lysis and harvesting by centrifugation, the inclusion bodies
were solubilized in Zwittergent
3-14 solution and refolded by stepwise dilution. Specific alliin
lyase activity could be
recovered by this procedure.
Antimicrobial activity of a compound isolated from an oil-macerated
Yoshida H; Iwata N; Katsuzaki H; Naganawa R; Ishikawa K; Fukuda
H; Fujino T; Suzuki
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1998 May, 62:5, 1014-7
A compound showing antimicrobial activity was isolated from an
extract by silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC.
On basis of the results of
NMR and MS analyses, it was identified as Z-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide
(Z-10-devinylajoene; Z-10-DA). Z-10-DA exhibited a broad spectrum
activity against such microorganisms as gram-positive and gram-negative
yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of Z-10-DA was comparable
to that of Z-ajoene, but was
superior to that of E-ajoene. Z-10-DA and Z-ajoene are different
in respect of substitution
of the allyl group by the methyl group flanking a sulfinyl group.
This result suggests that
substitution by the methyl group would also be effective for
the inhibition of microbial
Fermentation and sensory characteristics of kimchi containing
potassium chloride as a
partial replacement for sodium chloride.
Choi SY; Beuchat LR; Perkins LM; Nakayama T
Korea Food Research Institute, Songnam, Kyonggi.
Int J Food Microbiol, 1994 Mar, 21:4, 335-40
A study was designed to determine the effects of substituting
up to 50% of the NaCl in
kimchi, a fermented Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) product
garlic, ginger and hot red pepper powder, with KCl. Brine water
(15% salt) used to soak
cabbage contained NaCl:KCl ratios of 1:0 (control), 5:1, 2:1
and 1:1 (wt:wt). Total acidity
and pH of kimchi reached acceptable ranges of 0.4-0.6% (as lactic
acid) and 4.4-4.7,
respectively, after 13 days of incubation at 13 +/- 1 degree
C. Kimchi made using brine
water containing 5:1 and 2:1 (NaCl:KCl) salt ratios was characterized
by faster growth of
lactic acid bacteria and total aerobic microorganisms compared
to the control formulation.
Sensory qualities (saltiness, bitterness, sourness, hotness and
texture) of kimchi prepared
from cabbage soaked in brine containing NaCl and KCl at all test
ratios were judged to be
Allicin, a naturally occurring antibiotic from garlic, specifically
Focke M; Feld A; Lichtenthaler K
FEBS Lett, 1990 Feb, 261:1, 106-8
Allicin is shown to be a specific inhibitor of the acetyl-CoA
synthetases from plants, yeast
and mammals. The bacterial acetyl-CoA-forming system, consisting
of acetate kinase and
phosphotransacetylase, was inhibited too. Non-specific interaction
could be excluded in experiments with dithioerythritol and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.
Binding of allicin to the enzyme is non-covalent and reversible.
into fatty acids of isolated plastids was inhibited by allicin
with an I50-value lower than 10
microM. Other enzymes of the fatty acid synthesis sequence were
not affected, as was
shown using precursors other than acetate.