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 Garlic

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Title
An organosulfur compound isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract, and its antimicrobial
effect.
Author

Yoshida H; Katsuzaki H; Ohta R; Ishikawa K; Fukuda H; Fujino T; Suzuki A
Source

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1999 Mar, 63:3, 588-90
Abstract

An organosulfur compound was isolated from oil-macerated garlic extract by silica gel
column chromatography and preparative TLC. From the results of NMR, IR, and MS
analyses, its structure was determined as E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,7-diene-9-oxide
(iso-E-10-devinylajoene, iso-E-10-DA). This compound was different from
E-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide (E-10-devinylajoene, E-10-DA) only in the position
of a double bond. Iso-E-10-DA had antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria,
such as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts at the
concentration lower than 100 micrograms/ml, but Gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited
at the same concentration. The antimicrobial activity of iso-E-10-DA was inferior to those
of similar oil-macerated garlic extract compounds such as E-ajoene, Z-ajoene, and
Z-10-DA. From these results, it was suggested that trans structure and/or the position of
double bond of iso-E-10-DA reduce the antimicrobial activity.

Title
Antimicrobial activity of spices.
Author

Arora DS; Kaur J
Source

Int J Antimicrob Agents, 1999 Aug, 12:3, 257-62
Abstract

Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity.
This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to
various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the
different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity.
The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93%
killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts
were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing
resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater
anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great
potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.

Title
Antibacterial, antidermatophytic and antitoxigenic activities of onion (Allium cepa L.) oil.
Author

Zohri AN; Abdel Gawad K; Saber S
Source

Microbiol Res, 1995 May, 150:2, 167-72
Abstract

The inhibitory effect of onion oil against the growth of various isolates of bacteria
representing Gram-positive (4 isolates) and Gram-negative (4 isolates) species were studied.
Results show that onion oil was highly active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested and
only one isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae) of Gram-negative bacteria. The inhibitory effect of
onion oil against nine different species of dermatophytic fungi were also studied. Onion oil
(200 ppm) completely inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and
Trichophyton simii while the growth of both, Chrysosporium queenslandicum and
Trichophyton mentagrophytes was completely inhibited by 500 ppm of onion oil. The
growth of four other species of dermatophytic fungi was gradually reduced by increasing
the concentrations of onion oil. The inhibitory effect of onion oil was also tested against four
toxigenic isolates of fungi. Onion oil at different concentrations (100, 200 and 500 ppm)
tested gradually reduced fungal growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus IMI
89,717 and A. parasiticus var. globosus IMI 120,920. Fungal growth and production of
sterigmatocystin and rubratoxin A by A. versicolor IMI 16,139 and Penicillium rubrum
IMI 136,127 were completely inhibited by the addition of 200 ppm onion oil.

Title
Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic & allicin in experimental shigellosis in rabbits.
Author

Chowdhury AK; Ahsan M; Islam SN; Ahmed ZU
Source

Indian J Med Res, 1991 Jan, 93:, 33-6
Abstract

The aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) and allicin both showed significant in vitro
antibacterial activity against isolates of multiple drug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae 1, Sh.
flexneri Y, Sh. sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory
concentrations of the aqueous extract and allicin against Sh. flexneri Y were 5 and 0.4
microliters/ml, respectively. The two agents also showed promising in vivo antibacterial
activity against Sh. flexneri Y when tested in the rabbit model of experimental shigellosis,
fully curing the infected rabbits within 3 days. On the contrary, 4 of the 5 rabbits in the
control group died within 48 h. The rectal swab of rabbits of the experimental groups
became free of the challenge bacteria on the second day of treatment. The antibacterial
activity against the challenge strain was observed in the sera of the treated rabbits with 30-60
min of administration of the agents. The LD50 values of the aqueous extract and allicin in
mice were 173.78 ml/kg and 204.17 microliters/kg of body weight, respectively. At the
therapeutic dose, the two agents did not show any adverse effects on the standard
biochemical profile of blood.

Title
Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product
and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.
Author

Paludan Müller C; Huss HH; Gram L
Source

Int J Food Microbiol, 1999 Feb, 46:3, 219-29
Abstract

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves)
and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API
50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc
citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei
subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In
addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus
were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative lactobacillus
species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9%
of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate
components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment
inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains was found during fermentation
of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting strains were isolated
during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either starch fermenting Lc.
lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum
and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory
prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after
three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting LAB
were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred after three days.
Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting strains led to
production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days. The fermentation was
slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This is the first report describing the
role of garlic as carbohydrate Source for LAB in fermented fish products.

Title
Effects of the garlic compounds diallyl sulphide and diallyl disulphide on arylamine
N-acetyltransferase activity in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Author

Chen GW; Chung JG; Ho HC; Lin JG
Source

J Appl Toxicol, 1999 Mar, 19:2, 75-81
Abstract

Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activities with 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) were
determined in the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cytosols or suspensions of K.
pneumoniae with or without specific concentrations of diallyl sulphide (DAS) or diallyl
disulphide (DADS) as co-treatment showed different percentages of 2-AF acetylation. The
data indicated that there was decreased NAT activity associated with increased levels of
DAS or DADS in K. pneumoniae. In growth studies on K. pneumoniae it was
demonstrated that DAS or DADS elicited a dose-dependent bacteriocide effect on K.
pneumoniae. For the cytosol examinations, the apparent values of Km and Vmax were
0.96+/-0.09 mM and 7.87+/-0.79 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively, for 2-AF.
However, when DAS or DADS was added to the reaction mixtures, the apparent values of
Km and Vmax were 0.16+/-0.04 mM and 0.99+/-0.16 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein with
DAS, respectively, and 0.14+/-0.18 mM and 0.85+/-0.10 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein with
DADS, respectively, for 2-AF. For the intact bacteria examination, the apparent values of
Km and Vmax were 0.57+/-0.06 mM and 2.00+/-0.14 nmol min(-1) per 10x10(10) CFU,
respectively, for 2-AF. However, when DAS or DADS was added to the reaction mixtures,
the apparent of values of Km and Vmax were 0.41+/-0.04 mM and 1.30+/-0.10 nmol
min(-1) per 10x10(10) CFU with DAS, respectively, and 0.34+/-0.04 mM and 1.08+/-0.08
nmol min(-1) per 10x10(10) CFU with DADS, respectively, for 2-AF. This report is the
first demonstration to show that the garlic components DAS and DADS would affect K.
pneumoniae growth and NAT activity.

Title
Recombinant expression of alliin lyase from garlic (Allium sativum) in bacteria and yeasts
[letter]
Author

Weik R; Francky A; Striedner G; Raspor P; Bayer K; Mattanovich D
Source

Planta Med, 1998 May, 64:4, 387-8
Abstract

Recombinant garlic alliin lyase was produced in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
and Pichia pastoris. A cDNA clone was obtained from garlic bulbs by PCR and introduced
into suitable bacterial and yeast expression vectors. The recombinant alliin lyase forms
inclusion bodies in all three host organisms, which are deposited in the cytoplasm. After cell
lysis and harvesting by centrifugation, the inclusion bodies were solubilized in Zwittergent
3-14 solution and refolded by stepwise dilution. Specific alliin lyase activity could be
recovered by this procedure.

Title
Antimicrobial activity of a compound isolated from an oil-macerated garlic extract.
Author

Yoshida H; Iwata N; Katsuzaki H; Naganawa R; Ishikawa K; Fukuda H; Fujino T; Suzuki
A
Source

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 1998 May, 62:5, 1014-7
Abstract

A compound showing antimicrobial activity was isolated from an oil-macerated garlic
extract by silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. On basis of the results of
NMR and MS analyses, it was identified as Z-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide
(Z-10-devinylajoene; Z-10-DA). Z-10-DA exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial
activity against such microorganisms as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and
yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of Z-10-DA was comparable to that of Z-ajoene, but was
superior to that of E-ajoene. Z-10-DA and Z-ajoene are different in respect of substitution
of the allyl group by the methyl group flanking a sulfinyl group. This result suggests that
substitution by the methyl group would also be effective for the inhibition of microbial
growth.

Title
Fermentation and sensory characteristics of kimchi containing potassium chloride as a
partial replacement for sodium chloride.
Author

Choi SY; Beuchat LR; Perkins LM; Nakayama T
Korea Food Research Institute, Songnam, Kyonggi.
Source

Int J Food Microbiol, 1994 Mar, 21:4, 335-40
Abstract

A study was designed to determine the effects of substituting up to 50% of the NaCl in
kimchi, a fermented Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) product containing scallions,
garlic, ginger and hot red pepper powder, with KCl. Brine water (15% salt) used to soak
cabbage contained NaCl:KCl ratios of 1:0 (control), 5:1, 2:1 and 1:1 (wt:wt). Total acidity
and pH of kimchi reached acceptable ranges of 0.4-0.6% (as lactic acid) and 4.4-4.7,
respectively, after 13 days of incubation at 13 +/- 1 degree C. Kimchi made using brine
water containing 5:1 and 2:1 (NaCl:KCl) salt ratios was characterized by faster growth of
lactic acid bacteria and total aerobic microorganisms compared to the control formulation.
Sensory qualities (saltiness, bitterness, sourness, hotness and texture) of kimchi prepared
from cabbage soaked in brine containing NaCl and KCl at all test ratios were judged to be
acceptable.

Title
Allicin, a naturally occurring antibiotic from garlic, specifically inhibits acetyl-CoA
synthetase.
Author

Focke M; Feld A; Lichtenthaler K
Source

FEBS Lett, 1990 Feb, 261:1, 106-8
Abstract

Allicin is shown to be a specific inhibitor of the acetyl-CoA synthetases from plants, yeast
and mammals. The bacterial acetyl-CoA-forming system, consisting of acetate kinase and
phosphotransacetylase, was inhibited too. Non-specific interaction with sulfhydryl-groups
could be excluded in experiments with dithioerythritol and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.
Binding of allicin to the enzyme is non-covalent and reversible. [14C]-Acetate incorporation
into fatty acids of isolated plastids was inhibited by allicin with an I50-value lower than 10
microM. Other enzymes of the fatty acid synthesis sequence were not affected, as was
shown using precursors other than acetate.

 

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